What Is An Acceptable Earth Ground Resistance Value?
There are standards that recommend a specific resistance-to-ground, depending on the type of system you are working with.
The NEC states that if you use one ground rod that the resistance to ground must be 25 ohms. If it is higher, then you must place a second ground rod. There is no requirement to retest the resistance. In practice, for a residential structure, most electricians place two ground rods and call it done. This does not create the best ground, but it meets the bare minimum of the code. I do not know of an equivalent requirement in the British Standards.
There are other standards that recommend a specific resistance-to-ground, depending on the type of system you are working with. Here are two such examples:
ANSI/BICSI 002: Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices
Recommends 5 Ohms Maximum, but recommends 3 Ohms for Class F2 & F3 Data Centers, and 1 Ohm for Class F4 Data Centers
IEEE 142: Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (The Green Book)
220.127.116.11 Power stations and substations
“For satisfactory lightning protection, substation grounding network resistance must not exceed 5 ohm; for large stations lower values are more desirable.”
4.1.3 Recommended acceptable values
“Resistances in the 1 ohm to 5 ohm range are generally found suitable for industrial plant substations and buildings and large
Generally, we recommend a design goal of a resistance-to-ground less than 5 ohms for most installations. For substations or sites with sensitive electronics, we recommend a design goal of a resistance-to-ground of less than 1 ohm.
The Engineering Experts at E&S Grounding Solutions